601–615. 1310 Bayswater Avenue, Burlingame, CA 94010. The record of her ecstatic experiences in The Dialogue illustrates her doctrine of the “inner cell” of the knowledge of God and of self into which she withdrew. Christmas Mass Schedule. St. Catherine of Siena died at age 33 in Rome, and most of her body is buried there at Santa Maria sopra Minerva basilica. ST. CATHERINE OF SIENA CATHOLIC CHURCH Nurturing Disciples of Christ. 2750 E. Osceola Parkway, Kissimmee, FL 34743 | Phone (407)-344-9607 | Fax (407)-344-9160 In December 1376 peace was concluded with Florence. Her mother was 40 when she was born. [24][26] In June 1376 Catherine went to Avignon as ambassador of the Republic of Florence to make peace with the Papal States (on 31 March 1376 Gregory XI had placed Florence under interdict). Giovanna was handed over to a wet-nurse and died soon after. St. Catherine of Siena Roman Catholic Chuch, 3450 Tennessee Street, Vallejo, CA, 94591, United States (707) 553 1355 stcatherine@stcsv.org. We joyfully welcome all of God's children and, as we celebrate the sacraments, follow Christ's mission of reaching out and serving all of God's people. She did not want their food, referring to the table laid for her in Heaven with her real family. The most recent Italian critical edition of the Letters is Antonio Volpato, ed. Following Gregory's death in March 1378 riots, the revolts of the Ciompi, broke out in Florence on 18 June, and in the ensuing violence she was nearly assassinated. "Catherine of Siena." Official website of St Catherine of Siena, Caroline Springs Catholic Parish in Victoria, Australia. She went as an unofficial mediator to Avignon with her confessor and biographer Raymond of Capua. St Catherine and the Demons by an unknown artist, c. 1500, tempera on panel. Behind the bust walked Lapa, Catherine's mother, who lived until she was 89 years old. Our Story. Thank you & Goodbye to Lori. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. It became clear to her that the return of Pope Gregory XI to Rome from Avignon—an idea that she did not initiate and had not strongly encouraged—was the only way to bring peace to Italy. The main churches in honor of Catherine of Siena are: Michele de Meo, Catherine of Siena, Patroness of Europe, 2003, Chapel of St. James, Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Domenico Beccafumi, The Miraculous Communion of St. Catherine of Siena, c. 1513–1515, Getty Center, Los Angeles, California, Domenico Beccafumi, St. Catherine of Siena Receiving the Stigmata, c. 1513–1515, Getty Center, Los Angeles, California, The Virgin Mary Giving the Rosary to St. Dominic and St. Catherine of Siena, Church of Santa Agata in Trastevere, Rome (Bottom of painting: the souls in Purgatory await the prayers of the faithful), Baldassare Franceschini, Saint Catherine of Siena, 17th century, Dulwich Picture Gallery. [14] It seems that at this time she acquired Raymond of Capua as her confessor and spiritual director. Catherine ranks high among the mystics and spiritual writers of the Church. After a short final stay in Siena, during which she completed The Dialogue (begun the previous year), she went to Rome in November, probably at the invitation of Pope Urban VI, whom she helped in reorganizing the church. In Medieval Holy Women in the Christian Tradition c. 1100-c. 1500. During this period, in autumn 1377, she had the experience which led to the writing of her Dialogue and learned to write, although she still seems to have chiefly relied upon her secretaries for her correspondence.[10][31]. The Classics of Western Spirituality. Catherine would later advise Raymond of Capua to do during times of trouble what she did now as a teenager: "Build a cell inside your mind, from which you can never flee." "[25] In Pisa, in 1375, she used what influence she had to sway that city and Lucca away from alliance with the anti-papal league whose force was gaining momentum and strength. [49] She describes God in her work, 'the Dialogues', as a "sea, in which we are the fish", the point being that the relationship between God and man should not be seen as man contending against the Divine and vice versa, but as God being the endless being that supports all things.[50]. "[22] Raymond of Capua also records that she was told by Christ to leave her withdrawn life and enter the public life of the world. Welcome. [30], For many years she had accustomed herself to a rigorous abstinence. After miracles were reported to take place at her grave, Raymond moved her inside the Basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, where she lies to this day. [15] Eventually her father gave up and permitted her to live as she pleased. She was canonized in 1461, declared patron saint of Rome in 1866, and of Italy (together with Francis of Assisi) in 1939. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. St. Catherine's also ministers to permanent parishioners through adult faith formation and children's religious education. Though much of this material is heavily hagiographic, it has been an important source for historians seeking to reconstruct Catherine's life. This bust was later taken to Siena, and carried through that city in a procession to the Dominican church. [44] She viewed Christ as a "bridge" between the soul and God and transmitted that idea, along with her other teachings, in her book The Dialogue. St. Catherine of Siena Church 74 Simmons Road, Little Compton, Rhode Island 02837 becky@saintcatherinesiena.com +1 (401) 635 4420 613. [8][9] She is also the patroness of the historically Catholic American woman's fraternity, Theta Phi Alpha. St. Catherine of Siena Parish 199 McGovern Boulevard - Crescent, PA 15046 724-457-7026 Parish Office Hours: Monday-10:00AM-2:00PM, Tuesday-Thursday-9:30AM-3:00PM, Friday-9:30AM-1:00PM "Celebrating 100 Years" Home Safe Environment Church History / Mission Statement Bulletins Church Calendar Staff Ministers Schedule Today's Readings Sunday School-Religious Education Youth … St. Catherine of Siena Roman Catholic Church is a diverse, committed, and welcoming community of Faith. Giovanni di Paolo, St. Catherine of Siena, c. 1475, tempera and gold on panel. From 1411 onwards, Caffarini also co-ordinated the compiling of the Processus of Venice, the set of documents submitted as part of the process of canonisation of Catherine, which provides testimony from nearly all of Catherine's disciples. The 14th century also was the “Golden Age” of English mysticism, as conveyed in the writings of the hermit Richard Rolle;…, Catherine of Siena encouraged Gregory to move to Rome. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001. When they opened the bag to show the guards, it appeared no longer to hold her head but to be full of rose petals.[56]. Her mummified head is in a reliquary near her thumb in the church of St. Dominic in Siena, while her foot and three of her fingers are holy relics in Venice. Late in 1377 or early in 1378 Catherine again travelled to Florence, at the order of Gregory XI, to seek peace between Florence and Rome. A few other relevant pieces survive.[35]. Email: info@stcatherinesiena.org Phone: 269-327-5165 Fax: 269-327-7266. The first million in donated funds will go directly to parishes to help mitigate the decrease in general offertory during this pandemic. She had learned this from Bonaventura, whose husband had been far from considerate but his wife had changed his attitude by refusing to eat until he showed better manners. St. Catherine of Siena School offers faith-filled education for students in Kindergarten through 8th Grade. [10] The house where Catherine grew up still exists. [11] As a child Catherine was so merry that the family gave her the pet name of "Euphrosyne", which is Greek for "joy" and the name of an Euphrosyne of Alexandria. In her letters to the Pope, she often addressed him affectionately simply as. A vision of Saint Dominic gave strength to Catherine, but her wish to join his Order was no comfort to Lapa, who took her daughter with her to the baths in Bagno Vignoni to improve her health. She served as a nurse in homes and hospitals, and looked out for the destitute. Thank you for your generosity towards this year’s Archbishop’s Catholic Appeal. St. Catherine of Siena Catholic Church is located at 25181 E. Broadway Ave, across the street from the Veneta City Pool. She also lent her enthusiasm towards promoting the launch of a new crusade. It was in Pisa in 1375 that, according to Raymond of Capua's biography, she received the stigmata (visible, at Catherine's request, only to herself).[24]. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Her early pious activities in Siena attracted a group of followers, women and men, who gathered around her. On 26 February she lost the use of her legs. Masks are required. Joy Ritchie and Kate Ronald. St. Catherine of Siena Catholic Church, Clearwater, FL. Weekday Masses: Tuesday 7:00pm, Wednesday-Saturday 9:30am. In late November 1378, with the outbreak of the Western Schism, the new Pope, Urban VI, summoned her to Rome. [16], Her custom of giving away clothing and food without asking anyone's permission cost her family significantly, but she requested nothing for herself. St. Catherine of Siena was born during the outbreak of the plague in Siena, Italy on March 25, 1347. If you wish to know more about any of the boxes below, simply click on the heading and the box will expand with the relevant information. "[51] The incorrupt head and thumb were entombed in the Basilica of San Domenico at Siena, where they remain. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. READ MORE >> GET INVOLVED. She was unsuccessful and was disowned by the Florentine leaders, who sent ambassadors to negotiate on their own terms as soon as Catherine's work had paved the way for them. Print. Church Phone - 859-441-1352 School Phone - 859-572-2680 . Catherine fell seriously ill with a violent rash, fever and pain, which conveniently made her mother accept her wish to join the "Mantellate", the local association of devout laywomen. About St Catherine’s. Noffke, Suzanne. On 18 June 1939 Pope Pius XII named her a joint patron saint of Italy along with Saint Francis of Assisi.[6]. She chose to live an active and prayerful life outside a convent's walls following the model of the Dominicans. [39] Until the First World War German militaries believe in their capability to cause a major likelihood of survival in favour of their male owners[dubious – discuss],[40] similarly to an ancient acheropite holy image. Foster, Kenelm. She stayed at Pope Urban VI's court and tried to convince nobles and cardinals of his legitimacy, both meeting with individuals at court and writing letters to persuade others. The Great Schism of the West led Catherine of Siena to go to Rome with the pope. Reconciliation Times Saturday 8:45am Welcome to St. Catherine Of Siena May God bless and keep safe you and your families during this time. Catherine of Siena, Vallejo, CA” for access to mass schedules, bulletins, and mass readings from your mobile device. Alastair J. Minnis and Rosalynn Voaden, eds. Giving Online Giving. A story is told of a miracle whereby they were partially successful: knowing that they could not smuggle her whole body out of Rome, they decided to take only her head which they placed in a bag. [3] She made herself known very quickly by being marked by mystical phenomena such as invisible stigmata and a mystical marriage. "Catherine of Siena: The Two Hungers." Lapa was about forty years old when she gave premature birth to twin daughters Catherine and Giovanna. "[19][20] Catherine herself mentions the foreskin-as-wedding ring motif in one of her letters (#221), equating the wedding ring of a virgin with a foreskin; she typically claimed that her own wedding ring to Christ was simply invisible. The Letters of Saint Catherine of Siena, Volume II, Suzanne Noffke OP, Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies Tempe Arizona 2001, p. 184, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNoffke,_p._5 (. St. Catherine of Siena Parish 309 Siena Drive, Ithaca, New York 14850 607-257-2493 istcathe@dor.org Parish Office open 9:30 a.m.–12 p.m. Monday and Wednesday and 1–4 p.m. Friday ©2021 St. Catherine of Siena Parish Login . COMMUNITY NEWS & UPDATES. Catherine herself was a twin, but her sister did not survive infancy. St. Catherine of Siena 1150 West Centre Avenue Portage, MI 49024-5385. Her confessor, Raymond, ordered her to eat properly. St. Catherine of Siena was a Dominican tertiary and mystic who lived in Italy in the 1300s. Our 50th Anniversary. [30], Catherine died in Rome, on 29 April 1380, at the age of thirty-three,[33] having eight days earlier suffered a massive stroke which paralyzed her from the waist down. A complete edition of Catherine’s works, together with her biography by Raymond, was published in Siena (1707–21). Raymond began writing what is known as the Legenda Major, his Life of Catherine, in 1384, and completed it in 1395. English translations of The Dialogue include: The Letters are translated into English as: The Prayers are translated into English as: Raymond of Capua's Life was translated into English in 1493 and 1609, and in Modern English is translated as: Catherine of Siena. By staying in their midst, she could live out her rejection of them more strongly. [32] She received the Holy Eucharist almost daily. Catherine resisted the accepted course of marriage and motherhood on the one hand, or a nun's veil on the other. ST. CATHERINE OF SIENA. [23] Catherine rejoined her family and began helping the ill and the poor, where she took care of them in hospitals or homes. Updates? [27] While in Avignon, Catherine also tried to convince Pope Gregory XI, the last Avignon Pope, to return to Rome. Stay Connected. The University of Alcalá conserves the unique handwritten Spanish manuscript of the collection survived to the 19th century[citation needed], while the remaining available texts were printed copies collected by the National Library of France. Contact Us Daily Mass Readings Sunday Set-Up Podcast Saint of the Day Catholic News St. Cecelia Interparochial School (K-8) Clearwater Central Catholic HS (9-12) Diocese of St. Petersburg More... (727) 531-7721 . 520 West Holding Avenue, Wake Forest, North Carolina 27587 | P: (919) 570-0070 | F: (919) 570-0071 Parish Office Hours: Monday-Friday 9am-5pm (except holidays as posted above) Perpetual Eucharistic Adoration. Life of the Spirit (1946–1964) 16, no. There is some internal evidence of Catherine's personality, teaching and work in her nearly four hundred letters, her Dialogue, and her prayers. Raymond continues that at age seven, Catherine vowed to give her whole life to God. New to St. Catherine. She was an important defender of the papacy and is a patron saint of Europe and of Italy. © St. Catherine of Siena Parish 1042 Temple Terrace, Laguna Beach CA 92651 Phone: (949) 494-9701 Fax: (949) 497-2610 After miracles were reported to take place at her grave, Raymond moved her inside the Basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, where she lies to this day. Parish Ministry. [43] For Catherine, this practice was the means to fully realize her love of Christ in her mystical experience, with a large proportion of her ecstatic visions relating to the consumption or rejection of food during her life. The office phone number is 541-935-3933. Caroline Walker Bynum explains one surprising and controversial aspect of this marriage that occurs both in artistic representations of the event and in some early accounts of her life: "Underlining the extent to which the marriage was a fusion with Christ's physicality [...] Catherine received, not the ring of gold and jewels that her biographer reports in his bowdlerized version, but the ring of Christ's foreskin. The so-called "Heaven letters" or ‘miraculous letters’ were believed to be "written by divine hand, which fall to earth at crucial moments, occasionally carried by an angel, their messages often deciphered by a deaf-mute child or an extremely devout clergyman." trans. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Look at the tender little child who on the eighth day, when he was circumcised, gave up just so much flesh as to make a tiny circlet of a ring! (650) 344-6884. By then she had seen the end of the wealth and the happiness of her family, and followed most of her children and several of her grandchildren to the grave. [28] Gregory did indeed return his administration to Rome in January 1377; to what extent this was due to Catherine's influence is a topic of much modern debate. Our Parish offers many different opportunities for returning our gifts of time and talent to God. The office of the taxcollector (biccherna) of Siena by an unknown artist, 1451 - 1452, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. She had already borne 22 children, but half of them had died. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. ]associated a part of Catherine's letters to a sort of magic and thaumaturgical properties. She was the 25th child born to her mother, although half of her brothers and sisters did not survive childhood. Catherine’s writings, all of which were dictated, include about 380 letters, 26 prayers, and the 4 treatises of Il libro della divina dottrina, better known as The Dialogue (c. 1475; Eng. It has a population of approximately 1,100 parishioners. Office Hours: Monday: 9 am – 5 pm Tuesday: 9 am – 5 pm Wednesday: 9 am – 5 pm Thursday: 9 am – 5 pm Friday: 9 am – 5 pm Finnegan, Mary Jeremy. Phyllis Hodgson and Gabriel M Liegey, eds.. Carolyn Muessig, George Ferzoco, and Beverly Mayne Kienzle, eds., This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 09:13. St. Catherine of Siena Newman Center is a Catholic parish in Salt Lake City, Utah, that ministers to students at the University of Utah, Westminster College, and Salt Lake Community College. Contact Us. This year’s Archbishop’s Catholic Appeal is more important than ever. St. Catherine of Siena is one of only four women who were named doctor of the church, meaning that her writings, including the mystical The Dialogue and her prayers and letters, have special authority in Roman Catholicism. [10], As social and political tensions mounted in Siena, Catherine found herself drawn to intervene in wider politics. Donate by Faith Direct. She joined the "mantellate," a group of pious women, primarily widows, informally devoted to Dominican spirituality. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Pope Pius II, himself from Siena, canonized Catherine on 29 June 1461. [41] She used the language of medieval scholastic philosophy to elaborate her experiential mysticism. She made her first journey to Florence in 1374, probably to be interviewed by the Dominican authorities at the General Chapter held in Florence in May 1374, though this is disputed (if she was interviewed, then the absence of later evidence suggests she was deemed sufficiently orthodox). Mass Times. [42] Interested mainly with achieving an incorporeal union with God, Catherine practiced extreme fasting and asceticism, eventually to the extent of living solely off the Eucharist every day. Our many committees, councils, and organizations offer opportunities for fun, fellowship, and to become more personally connected to the parish. Calendar Full Calendar. The devotion around Catherine of Siena developed rapidly after her death. "St Catherine's Teaching on Christ." GIVE NOW. She was behind the return of the Pope from Avignon to Rome, and then carried out many missions entrusted by the pope, something quite rare for a woman in the Middle Ages. [46], In one of her letters she sent to her confessor, Raymund of Capua, she recorded this revelation from her conversation with Christ, in which he said: "Do you know what you are to Me, and what I am to you, my daughter? Caffarini later published a more compact account of Catherine's life, entitled the Legenda Minor. I am He who is, you are she who is not". In Medieval Holy Women in the Christian Tradition c. 1100-c. 1500. [5][6][7][8][9] She was the first woman (along with Teresa of Ávila) to be declared a "doctor of the Church," on 4 October 1970 by Pope Paul VI. [52], On 4 October 1970, Pope Paul VI named Catherine a Doctor of the Church;[7] this title was almost simultaneously given to Teresa of Ávila (27 September 1970),[53] making them the first women to receive this honour. St. Catherine of Siena was born during the outbreak of the plague in Siena, Italy on March 25, 1347. There is also an anonymous piece entitled "Miracoli della Beata Caterina" (Miracle of Blessed Catherine), written by an anonymous Florentine. At his request she went to Florence (1378) and was there during the Ciompi Revolt in June. Her mission failed, and she was virtually ignored by the pope, but while at Avignon she promoted her plans for a Crusade. Omissions? Masses Sunday: 5:00 PM (Saturday vigil), 7:30, 9:00, 10:30 AM, Back to Top. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. 187 (1962): 313. Eventually, in July 1378, peace was agreed between Florence and Rome; Catherine returned quietly to Florence. [29], Catherine returned to Siena and spent the early months of 1377 founding a women's monastery of strict observance outside the city in the old fortress of Belcaro. She rapidly gained a wide reputation for her holiness and her severe asceticism. Three genres of work by Catherine survive: The Christian hagiography[which? The fresco is located in the Church of Santo Domingo in San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. Catherine of Siena (25 March 1347 – 29 April 1380), a lay member of the Dominican Order, was a mystic, activist, and author who had a great influence on Italian literature and the Catholic Church. But Catherine claimed that she was unable to, describing her inability to eat as an infermità (illness). St. Catherine of Siena Catholic Church 4800 Convict Hill Rd Austin, TX 78749 Phone: (512)892-2420 Fax: (512)892-0488 Missionary disciples defines us. When the rebellious city of Florence was placed under an interdict by Pope Gregory XI (1376), Catherine determined to take public action for peace within the church and Italy and to encourage a Crusade against the Muslims. At the center of our parish prayer, one will find a profound love for the Eucharist and Mary. by Suzanne Noffke, 1980). Her ministry eventually moved beyond her local community, and Catherine began to travel and promote church reform. [4] Her influence with Pope Gregory XI played a role in his decision to leave Avignon for Rome. We graciously welcome you to St. Catherine of Siena Catholic Parish and Student Center! The Parish of St. Catherine of Siena and St. Agnes is a welcoming Roman Catholic community that puts faith in God into action, affirms each person is precious and valued, strengthens the sense of family, nourishes the spirit, and enables its members throughout their journey through life to live as best as possible in God's sight. In Medieval Holy Women in the Christian Tradition c. 1100-c. 1500. St. Catherine of Siena. against fire; bodily ills; Diocese of Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA; Europe; illness; Italy; Catherine's letters are considered one of the great works of early Tuscan literature. She sent numerous letters to princes and cardinals to promote obedience to Pope Urban VI and defend what she calls the "vessel of the Church." This extreme fasting appeared unhealthy in the eyes of the clergy and her own sisterhood. Download the MyParish App today and search for “St. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNoffke,_p._6 (. Serving them humbly became an opportunity for spiritual growth. As a catholic School, St Catherine's is a community in which all members can grow in the knowledge and love of God, themselves and the world in which we live. A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, Saint Catherine of Siena, patron saint archive, Some [nuns], most famously Saint Catherine of Siena, imagined wearing the foreskin as a wedding ring, "St. Catherine of Siena: A Feisty Role for Sister Nancy Murray - April 2006 Issue of St. Anthony Messenger Magazine Online", "Hellig anoreksi Sult og selvskade som religiøse praksiser. Welcome to St. Catherine of Siena Catholic Church Welcome to St. Catherine of Siena Catholic Church. Noffke, Suzanne. This experience is recorded in Letter 272, written to Raymond in October 1377. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNoffke,_p._2 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNoffke,_p._13 (. St. Catherine of Siena Medical Center is located at 50 Route 25A, Smithtown, New York. The Dialogue. Corrections? "Catherine of Siena." Catherine was nursed by her mother and developed into a healthy child. We are open for in-person Masses. [21] She wrote in a letter (to encourage a nun who seems to have been undergoing a prolonged period of spiritual trial and torment): "Bathe in the blood of Christ crucified. Our History. Catherine was the youngest of 25 children born to a lower middle-class family; most of her siblings did not survive childhood. Be who God meant you to be and together we can achieve. She was then sent by him to negotiate peace with Florence. Social Media. St. Catherine of Siena 1150 West Centre Avenue Portage, MI 49024-5385. Letter T273, written by Catherine to Raymond, probably in June 1375, describes the event. Much detail about her life has also, however, been drawn from the various sources written shortly after her death in order to promote her cult and canonisation. Ed. Her last words were, "Father, into Your Hands I commend my soul and my spirit."[34]. Welcome to the website of St Catherine of Siena and All Saints, Golborne, affiliated to the parish of St Lewis’ in Croft, and part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Liverpool.. Another important work written after Catherine's death was Libellus de Supplemento (Little Supplement Book), written between 1412 and 1418 by Tommaso d'Antonio Nacci da Siena (commonly called Thomas of Siena, or Tommaso Caffarini): the work is an expansion of Raymond's Legenda Major making heavy use of the notes of Catherine's first confessor, Tommaso della Fonte (notes that do not survive anywhere else). When stopped by the Roman guards, they prayed to Catherine to help them, confident that she would rather have her body (or at least part thereof) in Siena. 1649 Kingsley Avenue Orange Park, FL . Paulist Press, 1980. Weekend Masses: Saturday 6:00pm, Sunday 9:00am and 10.30am. Noffke, Suzanne. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Caterina av Siena (1347–80)", Saint Catherine of Siena: Text with concordances and frequency list, St Catherine statue – St Peter's Square Colonnade Saints, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Catherine_of_Siena&oldid=1000907891, 14th-century people of the Republic of Florence, Pre-Reformation saints of the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2020, Articles with disputed statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 29 April; 30 April (Roman Calendar, 1628–1969). 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