Canada 150, Canadian education, Education The ideal public schoolhouse of the mid-19th century included separate entrances, classrooms and recess areas for boys and for girls. In addition, the redefinition of the family as less of an economic unit of production than an association based on emotional attachment was accompanied by the idea that girls should be educated for household responsibility while boys should be trained as breadwinners. In some provinces like Ontario, Alberta and Saskatchewan and the territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut) denominational minorities run separate school systems. Other groups, such as the Ursulines, focused their educational efforts on aboriginal girls. Using a medicine wheel as a guide, we can look at themes in Indigenous education … One response was to have fewer children and to invest more in their education. In the case of British Columbia, the key distinction was the arrival of substantial numbers of Asians, beginning with Chinese men who worked in the mines of the Cariboo and then as labourers for railway building. In the province of Nova Scotia, early education is known as Grade Primary. During the Second World War continued racism led to the uprooting from coastal villages of those considered to be "Japanese," including Canadian-born residents of Japanese ancestry, and their forced relocation to internment camps. FREE award-winning lesson plans, classroom activities and resources for homeschoolers and teachers K-12. However, girls who lived in the countryside may have been better educated than boys as a result of the efforts of the sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame, who established schools in rural areas as well as in towns, and travelled as itinerant teachers. By the mid-19th century, many parents across English Canada were practising contraception in an attempt to raise a smaller number of children with a better quality of life. The leading figure in Ontario, Egerton Ryerson, worked in collaboration with Jean-Baptiste Meilleur in Québec, as well as John Jessop in British Columbia. Despite the reluctance of Catholic Church authorities, the Québec government portrayed educational progress as a key strategy for becoming "maîtres chez nous" ("masters in our own house"). We fought for and won many of the rights enjoyed by all workers today – minimum wages, overtime pay, workplace safety standards, maternity and parental leave, vacation pay, and protection from discrimination and harassment. While some parents sent their children to school to obtain credentials, many simply sent them whenever other priorities permitted. Recently, official educators have made efforts to collaborate with aboriginal peoples in developing educational programs that respect cultural identity. 1871: Free and compulsory public schooling was first instituted in Ontario. Most importantly, technical and vocational courses were developed for students who were deemed unsuitable for further academic study. With this book, Desmond Morton, one of Canada’s most noted and highly respected historians, shows how the choices we can make at the dawn of the 21st century have been shaped by history. The incident chosen to introduce the 1921–40 section of this history of higher education in Canada is a conference attended by 61 Canadians and 90 Americans at St Lawrence University in upper New York State from 19–22 June 1939. Secondly, the revamped school system was designed to produce a modern Québec society by ensuring economic competitiveness. Information is liberating. Canada's educational history has been marked by constant conflict over minority-language education. In the years after the Conquest of 1759-60, the British authorities were exceedingly concerned about the strong French Canadian presence in the colony, and they tried repeatedly to assist in the establishment of schools that were outside the control of religious authorities. 1867: Canada’s Constitution Act of 1867 gave power to the provinces and territories to legislate laws in regards to education. History of Education in Canada The History of Education in Canada covers schooling from elementary through university, plus the ideas of educators, plus the policies of national and provincial governments. Canada spends about 7% of its GDP on education and universal publicly funded schooling is available from Grades 1 through 12 (Statistics Canada, 2003). The Jesuits, Récollets, Ursulines, the Congregation of Notre Dame, and other religious orders provided elementary instruction in catechism, reading, writing, and arithmetic. I. Pre-History Before the Canadian Association of the Deaf was founded in 1940, there were already dozens and maybe even hundreds of Deaf clubs in Canada’s towns, provinces, and regions. By the late 20th century, schooling had become part of an institutional network which included hospitals, businesses, prisons, and welfare agencies. Public schools in Canada are free for residents, and are nearly universally excellent. The history of education in Canada covers schooling from elementary through university, plus the ideas of educators, plus the policies of national and provincial governments. Though most of the jurisdictions offer one-year of public pre-primary education, there are some exceptions. Formal education in the West emerged in the nineteenth century as many nations recognized the need to provide basic education for all children—basic proficiency in reading, writing, math, and algebra, as well as new work skills required by the growing mechanization of many trades. By the time compulsory attendance legislation was passed in the Canadian provinces (except Québec) during the later 19th century, only a minority of parents were not already enrolling their children in class. In these years, politicians, churchmen and educators debated questions of educational financing, control and participation, and by the 1840s the structure of the modern school systems can clearly be discerned in an emerging official consensus. They’re much the same across Canada, but there are some differences among provinces and territories. 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