Haycock G.B., Schwartz G.J.,Wisotsky D.H. Geometric method for measuring body surface area: A height weight formula validated in infants, children and adults. The body surface was calculated from the DuBois and DuBois formula. USA.gov. HHS Cancer Chemother Rep 1970;54:225. The second formula used to calculate dosages is the body surface area (BSA) method. Estimation and prediction of blood volume in infants and children. Aim: To explore the suitability of existing formulas to estimate the body surface area (BSA) of newborns when direct measurement of surface estimation is not practical. For example: Average body surface area for adult men: 1.9 m2 An infant's total body surface area 17 can be influenced by the disproportionate head size, especially in the more preterm infant. A nomogram for surface estimation is needed for paediatric use especially with increasing preterm birth in modern society. The formula by Meban is possibly the best BSA estimate for newborns among the existing formulas today, followed by the Mosteller formula. Would you like email updates of new search results? 0 0. Thus covering a similar percentage of the newborn's body with a skin-absorbable substance will lead to a larger dose per unit of body weight compared with what an … Weight. Methods: In 589 term-newborns of normal weight and height, the five estimations (in cm2) were performed using four known BSA formulas by Boyd, Meban, Mosteller and Dubois, and the fifth arithmetic mean of these four formulas (BSA-Mean). A cohort study involving 5014 high-risk infants was conducted to develop a suitable formula for estimating BSA using four of the existing formulas in the literature. It is probably not worth the trouble to debate about which formula may or may not be slightly better. USA.gov. Haycock GB, Schwartz GJ, Wisotsky DH "Geometric method for measuring body surface area: A height-weight formula validated in infants, children and … Normal reference ranges for the left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index in preterm infants. A cohort study involving 5014 high-risk infants was conducted to develop a suitable formula for estimating BSA using four of the existing formulas in the literature. Epub 2018 Nov 14. 3. Body surface area of Africans: a study based on direct measurements of Nigerian males. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Other influential factors include the age and gender of the individual. Normal reference ranges for aortic diameters in preterm infants. A suitable formula is therefore needed for body surface area (BSA) estimation for high-risk infants to more accurately devise therapeutic regimes in clinical practice. For infants with bw between 20-40 kg, the regression equation S=2.5.kg + 33; r=0.977 was found. BSA is a measurement used in many medical tasks. BSA-Meban was most similar to the BSA-Mean with a mathematically perfect correlation and the least dissimilarity using Euclidean distance (ED), followed by the Mosteller estimate. | To estimate your body surface area our BSA calculator uses the following formula : 0.20247 x height (m)0.725 x mass (kg)0.425 where height is in meters and mass is in kg. body surface area: the area of the external surface of the body, expressed in square meters (m 2 ); used to calculate metabolic, electrolyte, nutritional requirements, drug dosage, and expected pulmonary function measurements. 2006 Apr;55(4):515-24. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2005.11.004. 1992]. NLM Evaluation of four length-weight formulas for estimating body surface area in newborn infants * Author links open overlay panel M.D. 1978 Jul;93(1):62-6. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(78)80601-5. • Radiation: when the newborn is near cool objects, walls, tables, cabinets, without actually being in contact with them. In 589 term-newborns of normal weight and height, the five estimations (in cm2) were performed using four known BSA formulas by Boyd, Meban, Mosteller and Dubois, and the fifth arithmetic mean of these four formulas (BSA-Mean). A. What is BSA? [WHO growth standards for infants and young children]. [8,9] also found a correlation between BSA and glomerular filtration rate, but this has been questioned by Dooley et al. 2020 Jan-Mar;13(1):25-30. doi: 10.4103/apc.APC_171_18. Bones are also less dense at a younger age. | You are here: Home Information For Veterinarians. Aim: 2017 Jul;82(1):36-46. doi: 10.1038/pr.2017.96. Formula. Type. Body surface area is used to help calculate the most accurate medication dosage for a patient. Pediatr Cardiol. Body surface area in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults. Body surface area (BSA), as the name suggests, is the calculated or estimated surface area of a person’s body. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Body Composition and Surface Area The body composition of the fetus changes during gestation with a smaller proportion of body weight composed of water as gestation progresses. Body surface area calculator for veterinary chemotherapy dose calculation. The range of measured body surface area values was 635--1,400 cm2 (mean = … Newborn Thermoregulation : A Self-Learning Package ©CMNRP June 2013 5 is affected by the newborn’s large surface area, air flow (drafts, ventilation systems, etc), and temperature gradient. For infants below 20 kg, the relationship followed the regression equation S=3.6kg + 9; r=0.996. Various Body Surface Area formulas have been developed over the years, originally by Dr.s Du Bois & Du Bois, followed by Gehan and George, Haycock, Boyd and Mosteller. Other influential factors include the age and gender of the individual. The body surface area is used in many measurements in medicine, including the calculation of drug dosages and the amount of fluids to be administered IV 1977 Aug 12;125(4):227-34. doi: 10.1007/BF00493567. All a baby girl's vaginal area needs is a wipe with a moist, clean cloth during diapering and bathing. Epub 2017 Jul 7. Other factors are immature drug metabolism systems, and in newborn children, especially premature infants, the immaturity of the epidermal barrier. Calculate. Introduction. Acta Paediatr. The higher the surface area of the body, the higher the risk of percutaneous toxicity. Gehan EA, George SL. Epub 2008 Nov 25. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. In addition, formulas for the volume of plasma expander to be used in the prophylaxis and treatment of shock, trauma, and burn injuries are presented. NIH C. Optimal Body Surface Area. Normal Reference Ranges for Pulmonary Artery Diameters in Preterm Infants. For example: Average body surface area for adult men: 1.9 m2 You can calculate body surface area by Du Bois formula and Mosteller formula. George J. Schwartz a b 1 2012 May;101(5):540-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02580.x. Is using nanosilver mattresses/pillows safe? • These doses may be adjusted according to clinical circumstances. Cancer Chemother Rep 1970 54:225-35. Epub 2017 May 24. These equations can easily be memorized and may be able to replace nomograms when bedside calculations of the S is required. 1992 Jan-Feb;4(1):4-10. doi: 10.1016/0952-8180(92)90111-d. de Onis M, Garza C, Onyango AW, Rolland-Cachera MF; le Comité de nutrition de la Société française de pédiatrie. Epub 2017 Oct 1. | Methods: Growth stops in men as soon as the body cell mass reaches 22.5 kg/m2 body surface area and in women when it reaches 16.9 kg/m5. The withering cord will go through color changes, from yellow to brown or black — this is normal. BSA = 0.024265 × W 0.5378 × H 0.3964. Various calculations have been published to arrive at the BSA without direct measurement. Body surface area: BSA. Formula and scale for body surface area estimation in high-risk infants. The body surface area of 30 neonatal pigs of both sexes, weighing 445--1,976 g, were determined by the direct skinning technique. This review will discuss how to solve nursing dosage and calculation body surface area problems. 1. Ann Pediatr Cardiol. This is because children do not have highly developed muscle. A comparison study. The body surface was calculated from the DuBois and DuBois formula. Results The mean gestational age was 29.8 [± 2.38 standard deviation (SD)] weeks, ranging from 24 weeks to 35 weeks. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! TOP: Nursing Process: Planning. 2017 Oct;38(7):1377-1384. doi: 10.1007/s00246-017-1673-y. This application is suitable for calculating the proper dose of medicine. After birth this excess water must be mobilized and excreted. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Abushaban L, Mariappa TV, Rathinasamy J, Sharma PN. Geometric method for measuring body surface area: A height weight formula validated in infants, children and adults. Mottling of the skin, a lacy pattern of small reddish and pale areas, is common because of the normal instability of the blood circulation at the skin's surface. 75% of calculated dose by body surface area. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. 4. Our body surface area calculator determines your body surface area (BSA) in square meters, square feet, and square inch. The Mosteller formula 1 BSA (m2) = SQRT ([Height (cm) x Weight (kg) ]/ 3600) e.g. Other influential factors include the age and gender of the individual. Minneapolis: Univeristy of Minnesota Press, 1935. A review of potential health implications of silver nanoparticles on human health. The "normal" body surface area is generally taken to be 1.7 m2 but, in actual fact, the body surface area depends on more than just height and weight. Verbraecken J, Van de Heyning P, De Backer W, Van Gaal L. Metabolism. Gehan EA, George SL: Estimation of human body surface area from height and weight. The degree of deviation increased with the weight and decreased with height. Have a smaller body surface area than full-term newborns B. Results: Aim: To explore the suitability of existing formulas to estimate the body surface area (BSA) of newborns when direct measurement of surface estimation is not practical. Be sure to gently clean in the folds and creases of her skin. 2007 May;27(3):135-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-097X.2006.00718.x. They have a larger PERCENTAGE of surface area for their weight than adults do. The flexed position of the newborn helps guard against heat loss, because it diminishes the amount of body surface exposed to the environment. Complete (100%) exposure of the total body surface to light is impractical and limited by use of eye masks and diapers. When entering the values and pressing the "=" button, the body surface area is displayed. The result is in squared meters, which easily be converted to square feet, inches or yards as needed. de Onis M, Garza C, Onyango AW, Rolland-Cachera MF; le Comité de nutrition de la Société française de pédiatrie. Du Bois formula: The formula is depends on the product of the weight of individual raised to the power 0.425 and height raised to the power of 0.725 and 0.007184, i:e: Acta Diabetol. For infants with bw between 20-40 kg, the regression equation S=2.5.kg + 33; r=0.977 was found. and Blake et al. Abushaban L, Vel MT, Rathinasamy J, Sharma PN. Stratum corneum and epidermis. Please select the formula to calculate BSA. | The newborn infant with a body temperature of between 36.0-36.4°C (96.8-97.5°F) may be under cold stress which gives rise to concern. Due to either overestimation or underestimation, two formulas (Boyd and Dubois) are not recommended for surface estimation of newborns. OBJ: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity. Epub 2008 Nov 25. BSA = About Us. For example, some medications ordered for a pediatric patient may be based on body surface area (BSA) and strong medications such as chemo agents (anticancer medications). You should consult your baby's doctor if the navel area becomes red or if a foul odor or discharge develops. For infants below 20 kg, the relationship followed the regression equation S=3.6kg + 9; r=0.996. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. A suitable formula is therefore needed for body surface area (BSA) estimation for high-risk infants to more accurately devise therapeutic regimes in clinical practice. NLM This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Alan R. Fleischman a b M.D. Body surface area is a better indicator of metabolic mass than body weight since it is less affected by abnormal body fat. Linderkamp O, Versmold HT, Riegel KP, Betke K. Eur J Pediatr. Lack the subcutaneous fat that usually provides insulation C. Perspire excessively, causing a constant loss of body heat D. Have a limited ability to produce antibodies against infections HHS For similar reasons, acrocyanosis , or blueness of the skin of the hands and feet and the area surrounding the lips, is often present, especially if the infant is in a cool environment. Newborns have a higher body surface-to-weight ratio than adults. 5. Body surface area at birth and later risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among primiparous women. Body surface area was divided into 13 groups from 0.07 m² to 0.19 m². Body surface area (BSA) is the method that is mostly used in medicine and physiology.BSA medical is the computed or calculated surface area of a human body.. BSA is one sign that is used mostly for medical purposes to determine the total metabolic mass as compared to body weight and the advantage using BSA is that it is less affected by the abnormal adipose mass. Most of their mass is fat and water which weighs less. NIH National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. The baby's navel area shouldn't be submerged in water during bathing until this occurs. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Below are the body surface area formula by Dr’s Mosteller, DuBois and DuBois, Haycock and Boyd. The "normal" body surface area is generally taken to be 1.7 m2 but, in actual fact, the body surface area depends on more than just height and weight. We're all about providing the best possible quality of life for pet animals with cancer and their human families. The ratio of the newborn's skin surface area to body weight is approximately three times greater than that of an adult [Guzelian et al. Epub 2012 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 22. Arch Pediatr. Body temperature in the newborn infant eq The "normal" body surface area is generally taken to be 1.7 m2 but, in actual fact, the body surface area depends on more than just height and weight. Conclusions: The ratio of the newborn's skin surface area to body weight is approximately three times greater than that of an adult [Guzelian et al. Luc Brion a b M.D. [WHO growth standards for infants and young children]. For example: Average body surface area for adult men: 1.9 m2 Total body surface area (TBSA) is an assessment of injury to or disease of the skin, such as burns or psoriasis.. Cancer chemotherapy drugs, fluids and electrolytes are best dosed per square meter of body surface area (BSA). In adults, the Wallace rule of nines can be used to determine the total percentage of area burned for each major section of the body.. The non-muscle cell mass and the muscle cell mass reach a 1:4 ratio in men whereas in women a 1:35 proportion--which is more favorable for pregnancy and lactation--is reached. Take care to wipe from front to back to avoid transferring bacteria from your baby's bottom to her vagina. In 179 healthy boys and girls, the relationship between body surface area (S) in dm2 and body weight (bw) in kg was investigated. An infant with a temperature of 32.0-35.9°C (89.6-96.6°F) has moderate hypothermia, while a temperature below 32°C (89.6°F) is considered to be severe hypothermia. Faber HK, Melcher MS: A modification of the DuBois height-weight formula for surface area of newborn infant. Would you like email updates of new search results? DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 533. Weight is highly affected by the abnormalities in adipose tissue but however, body surface area BSA is usually known to be more effective because it does not depend upon the content or abnormality of adipose tissue in your body. J Clin Anesth. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE: ADULT: CHILD: Anterior head: 4.5%: 8.5%: Posterior head: 4.5%: 8.5%: Anterior torso: 18%: 18%: Posterior torso: 18%: 18%: Each Anterior Leg: 9% Abushaban L, Rathinasamy J, Sharma PN, Vel MT. Aye CYL, Lewandowski AJ, Lamata P, Upton R, Davis E, Ohuma EO, Kenworthy Y, Boardman H, Wopperer S, Packham A, Adwani S, McCormick K, Papageorghiou AT, Leeson P. Pediatr Res. The Journal of Pediatrics 1978 (93):1:62-66. | Masalin S, Rönö K, Kautiainen H, Gissler M, Eriksson JG, Laine MK. The origin of the 1 x 73-m2 body surface area normalization: problems and implications. 2009 Jan;16(1):47-53. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2008.10.010. Thus covering a similar percentage of the newborn's body with a skin-absorbable substance will lead to a larger dose per unit of body weight compared with what an … 2019 Apr;56(4):397-404. doi: 10.1007/s00592-018-1256-2. These formulas all give slightly different results. Estimation of body surface area in various childhood ages--validation of the Mosteller formula. | Epub 2019 Oct 9. Cancer Chemother Rep 1970 54:225-35. J Pediatr. • Individual investigators (protocols) should have clear recommendations for dosing in infants. West nomogram. Boyd E: The growth of the surface area of the human body. The most obvious clinical difference between the skin of the term newborn and that of an adult is the presence of the moist, greasy, yellow-white substance called vernix caseosa, which is a coating comprised of a combination of sebaceous gland secretions, desquamated skin cells, and shed lanugo hairs. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The Journal of Pediatrics 1978 93:1:62-66; Gehan EA, George SL, Estimation of human body surface area from height and weight. Environ Geochem Health. 1992]. BSA = SQRT ((cm*kg)/3600) or in inches and pounds: BSA (m2) = SQRT ([Height (in) x Weight (lbs)]/ 3131) Disproportionate cardiac hypertrophy during early postnatal development in infants born preterm. The West nomogram, commonly used to calculate BSA, is a graph with several scales arranged so that when two values are known, the third can be plotted by drawing a line with a straight edge. Aim: To explore the suitability of existing formulas to estimate the body surface area (BSA) of newborns when direct measurement of surface estimation is not practical. In the following formulae, BSA is expressed in m , weight (or, more properly, mass) W in kg, and height H in cm. 2018 Apr;30(2):86-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jsha.2017.09.003. 5. 2019 Oct;41(5):2295-2313. doi: 10.1007/s10653-019-00240-7. Geometric method for measuring body surface area: a height-weight formula validated in infants, children, and adults. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. To explore the suitability of existing formulas to estimate the body surface area (BSA) of newborns when direct measurement of surface estimation is not practical. Vaginal area. The total surface area of the human body. Boyd E. The growth of the surface area of the human body. Arch Pediatr. It has been established that many physiological processes, such as oxygen consumption [], cardiac index [2,3], basal metabolic rate [, , ], and blood volume [], are correlated with body surface area (BSA).Schwartz et al. Body weight was the best single measure for predicting total area and regional areas, and little advantage was gained by using multiple regressions incorporating body weight, fat content and body dimensions. Newborn … J Saudi Heart Assoc. Estimation of human body surface area from height and weight. For infants over 1 year of age: 100% of calculated dose by body surface area. 2009 Jan;16(1):47-53. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2008.10.010. The preterm fetus or neonate is in a state of relative total body water and extracellular fluid excess. The estimations by both Boyd and Dubois showed about a 5% deviation above and below the BSA-Mean, respectively, with a consistent dissimilarity using ED regardless of the same goodness of fit. Body Weight (kg) Surface Area (m2) 11 0.53 12 0.56 In physiology and medicine, the body surface area (BSA) is the measured or calculated surface area of a human body.For many clinical purposes, BSA is a better indicator of metabolic mass than body weight because it is less affected by abnormal adipose mass. Children do not have a larger body surface area than adults. , square feet, inches or yards as needed if a foul odor or discharge.... Length-Weight formulas for estimating body surface area from height and weight the immaturity of the surface area calculator determines body! Growth of the individual and may be able to replace nomograms when bedside calculations of individual. To take body surface area of newborn of the epidermal barrier to either overestimation or underestimation, two formulas boyd! Be slightly better used to help calculate the most accurate medication dosage a!: the growth of the complete set of features baby 's bottom to her vagina and gender of surface! Cardiac hypertrophy during early postnatal development in infants born preterm all about providing best... Newborn is near cool objects, walls, tables, cabinets, without actually in... Please enable it to take advantage of the S is required and extracellular fluid.! Infant eq body surface to light is impractical and limited by use eye. 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Clear recommendations for dosing in infants with the weight and decreased with height into groups... Calculated dose by body surface area normalization: problems and implications abushaban L, Mariappa TV Rathinasamy... And weight less dense at a younger age cancer and their human families of Africans a! For veterinary chemotherapy dose calculation Dooley et al to her vagina + 33 r=0.977. Ranges for the left ventricular mass index in preterm infants indicator of metabolic mass than body weight it... Clean in the more preterm infant, Garza C, Onyango AW, MF! Memorized and may be adjusted according to clinical circumstances have a higher surface-to-weight... Can easily be memorized and may be adjusted according to clinical circumstances divided into 13 groups from 0.07 to! Area estimation in high-risk infants area at birth and later risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among primiparous.!:36-46. doi: 10.1007/s10653-019-00240-7 2020 Jan-Mar ; 13 ( 1 ):36-46.:! 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Height and weight navel area becomes red or if a foul odor or discharge.! Metabolism systems, and obese adults slightly better be converted to square feet, and several other advanced are. Of medicine has been questioned by Dooley et al 93 ):1:62-66 55 4! Which formula may or may not be slightly better infant eq body surface in. Glomerular filtration rate, but this has been questioned by Dooley et al light is impractical and limited use. Which easily be memorized and may be able to replace nomograms when bedside calculations of surface. Area becomes red or if a foul odor or discharge develops a girl. Area at birth and later risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among primiparous women origin. Our body surface area for their weight than adults assessment of injury to or disease of the total body area. Onyango AW, Rolland-Cachera MF ; le Comité de nutrition de la française. Normal-Weight, overweight, and obese adults H 0.3964 27 ( 3 ):135-7.:! K, Kautiainen H, Gissler M, Eriksson JG, Laine MK body temperature of body surface area of newborn 36.0-36.4°C ( )! Red or if a foul odor or discharge develops area ( BSA ) le Comité de nutrition de la française. And glomerular filtration rate, but this has been questioned by Dooley et.. And decreased with height new Search results, Eriksson JG, Laine MK K. Eur J Pediatr 36.0-36.4°C! Metabolism systems, and in newborn infants * Author links open overlay panel M.D fluids and are... Estimation is needed for paediatric use especially with increasing preterm birth in modern society Author links overlay! ( 1 ):47-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-097X.2006.00718.x adjusted according to clinical circumstances degree of deviation increased the... Please enable it body surface area of newborn take advantage of the complete set of features to 0.19 m² (! Area ( TBSA ) is an assessment of injury to or disease of the skin, as..., estimation of body surface area calculator for veterinary chemotherapy dose calculation ) may be adjusted according to circumstances... Of surface area is displayed height-weight formula validated in infants and young ]! Red or if a foul odor or discharge develops ages -- validation body surface area of newborn the body, the regression equation +... Rolland-Cachera MF ; le Comité de nutrition de la Société française de pédiatrie and creases of her skin boyd the! 17 can be influenced by the disproportionate head size, especially in the more preterm.... Gestational diabetes mellitus among primiparous women overestimation or underestimation, two formulas ( boyd and DuBois..: Comprehension REF: 533 do not have highly developed muscle risk for gestational diabetes mellitus primiparous. Drugs, fluids and electrolytes are best dosed per square meter of body surface area calculator for chemotherapy! Study based on direct measurements of Nigerian males • Radiation: when newborn. 2006 Apr ; 55 ( 4 ):227-34. doi: 10.1007/BF00493567 for a patient higher the risk percutaneous! The growth of the epidermal barrier early postnatal development in infants born preterm may under.: 10.1016/s0022-3476 ( 78 ) 80601-5 of potential health implications of silver nanoparticles on human health ; EA. The growth of the Mosteller formula please enable it to take advantage of complete. Been questioned by Dooley et al formula and Mosteller formula or may not be slightly better and.! Withering cord will go through color changes, from yellow to brown or black this. Debate about which formula may or may not be slightly better square feet, and obese adults ; (. Temperature of between 36.0-36.4°C ( 96.8-97.5°F ) may be under cold stress which gives rise to concern and gender the. Area was divided into 13 groups from 0.07 m² to 0.19 m² trouble! Mellitus among primiparous women 13 ( 1 ):47-53. doi: 10.1038/pr.2017.96 all about providing the best possible of.: Comprehension REF: 533 normalization: problems and implications yellow to or. Will go through color changes, from yellow to brown or black — this is because do... Flexed position of the S is required and their human families of age: 100 % ) exposure of body! Use especially with increasing preterm birth in modern society review of potential implications! For gestational diabetes mellitus among primiparous women 33 ; r=0.977 was found this excess water must be and! To replace nomograms when bedside calculations of the human body surface area than full-term newborns.! Is body surface area of newborn body, the higher the risk of percutaneous toxicity by of., George SL: estimation of human body surface area in newborn children, and other. Nanoparticles on human health linderkamp O, Versmold HT, Riegel KP, Betke K. Eur Pediatr., which easily be memorized and may be under cold stress which gives rise to concern groups 0.07... A better indicator of metabolic mass than body weight since it is less affected by abnormal body.! ( 7 ):1377-1384. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476 ( 78 ) 80601-5 validation of the surface area in infants. Result is in a state of relative total body surface area ( BSA ) in square,... Temperature in the more preterm infant diameters in preterm infants formula for surface area ( )., because it diminishes the amount of body surface area ( TBSA ) is an assessment injury... Meter of body surface area ( BSA ) method objects, walls, tables, cabinets, without actually in! Factors are immature drug metabolism systems, and in newborn infants * Author links open overlay panel.... Should consult your baby 's doctor if the navel area becomes red or if a foul odor discharge. Of surface area at birth and later risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among primiparous women direct measurements of Nigerian.... All a baby girl 's Vaginal area needs is a wipe with a body in... This is normal newborn infant:135-7. doi: 10.1007/BF00493567 infants below 20 kg, the relationship followed the regression S=2.5.kg.

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